See below the topic

When the wind changes to another quarter, these sands disappear, and shoals are visible in their former situation. It is true, no doubt, that a refined humour is capable of being turned at times to the same social uses as its ancestor, the elemental laughter of the people. To imagine any such mysterious affection between cousins, or even between aunts or uncles, and nephews or nieces, would be too ridiculous. Probably his library has no books on plumbing. Perhaps something of this bold, licentious, slovenly, lounging character may be objected by a fastidious eye to the appearance of Lord C—— It might be said of him, without disparagement, that he looks more like a lord than like a gentleman. One of the earliest developments of a feeling of professional pride in one’s work is an insistence on the adequate training of the workers and on the establishment of standards of efficiency both for workers and work. As in shooting at a mark, the man who missed it by an inch had equally missed it with him who had done so by a hundred yards; so the man who, in what to us appears the most insignificant action, had acted improperly and without a sufficient reason, was equally faulty with him who had done so in, what to us appears, the most important; the man who has killed a cock, for example, improperly and without a sufficient reason, was as criminal as he who had murdered his father. When he directs his attention towards the second standard, indeed, that degree of excellence which his friends and acquaintances have commonly arrived at, he may be sensible of his own superiority. They were undoubtedly induced at that exact time by the autosuggestion which connected the symptom with the hour and by the conviction or fear, after the first experience, that the attack would recur at the same hour. W. This is perhaps most noticeable in a city where there is a system of branch libraries. To judge of things by reason or the calculations of positive utility is a slow, cold, uncertain, and barren process—their power of appealing to and affecting the imagination as subjects of thought and feeling is best measured by the habitual impression they leave upon the mind, and it is with this only we have to do in expressing our delight or admiration of them, or in setting a just mental value upon them. My Ambition to shew the profound Respects I have always had for your Highness, would not suffer me to let slip any occasion of expressing it, even tho I blush for the meanes of it. 96, 97, _Article, Childe Harold_, Canto 4. Even that principle, in the excess and improper direction of which consists the odious and detestable passion of envy, may be defective. We might then be said to hear the awful and benevolent voice of that divine Being distinctly calling upon us to do so. The institution of the jury in various forms was common to all, and where proof upon open trial was deficient, they allowed, until a comparatively recent date, the accused to clear himself by sacramental purgation. They talked of Titian and Bernini; and Northcote mentioned, that when Roubilliac came back from Rome, after seeing the works of the latter, and went to look at his own in Westminster Abbey, he said—‘By G—d, they looked like tobacco-pipes.’ They then recalled a number of anecdotes of Day (a fellow-student of theirs), of Barry and Fuseli. Dewey’s proposed library bookstore. Extremes seem to meet here. Of all the Greek heroes whose lives have been written by Plutarch, Cleomenes appears to have been the only one who perished in this manner. With what zeal and anxious affection I attended him through that his agony of glory; what part, my son, in early flush and enthusiasm of his virtue and the pious passion with which he attached himself to all my connexions, with what prodigality we both squandered ourselves in courting almost every sort of enmity for his sake, I believe he felt, just as I should have felt, such friendship on such an occasion.’—_Letter to a Noble Lord_, p. And this means, first of all, that the pleasurable consciousness must come in the form of a large accession, and, for a moment at least, be ample, filling soul and body. To go farther than this, and say that the mind as the representative of truth is or ought to be interested in things as they are really and truly interesting in themselves, without any reference to the manner in which they immediately affect the individual, is to destroy at once the foundation of every principle of selfishness, which supposes that all objects are good or bad, desirable or the contrary, solely from their connection with self. The former sentiment is altogether independent of the latter, and seems sometimes even to dispose us to act inconsistently with it. He is humble and thankful for small favors. I had rather die”—and he was duly hanged.[1658] In fact, all these exemptions were rather theoretical than practical, and they were speedily set aside.[1659] In Catholic countries, of course, the clergy were specially favored, but the immunity claimed for them by the canon law was practically reduced to nearly the same as that accorded to nobles.[1660] The torture inflicted on them, however, was lighter than in the case of laymen, and proof of a much more decided character was required to justify their being exposed to torment. One of them had a favourite taw (or _alley_ we used to call them) he’d take aim at the cock of the cistern with this marble, as I may do now. With regard to restriction, one must protest against the common misapprehension, that the development of humour spoils the taste for simple modes of mirth. There are persons who in society in public intercourse, feel no excitement, ‘Dull as the lake that slumbers in the storm,’ but who, when left alone, can lash themselves into a foam. A slave while claiming freedom, or a man claimed as a slave, could not be exposed to torture;[1393] and even if a slave, when about to be tortured, endeavored to escape by asserting his freedom, it was necessary to prove his servile condition before proceeding with the legal torments.[1394] In practice, however, these privileges were continually infringed, and numerous edicts of the emperors were directed to repressing the abuses which constantly occurred. When he comes, I’ll haste to meet him, I think of him all night; He too will be glad to see me, His eyes will gleam with delight. Like nearly all the other ordeals, it can be traced back to India, where, at least as early as the time of the Institutes of Vishnu, it was in common use. He was, in less than nine months, altogether another being; his habits were altered, and his health greatly re-established; and this person was one whose cure was partly to be attributed to my mode of amusing him. They know that their general would not have ordered them upon this station, had it not been necessary for the safety of the army, for the success of the war. They would be most absurd subjects for Statuary or Sculpture, which are, however, capable of representing them. Ferdinand and Isabella, moreover, in 1480, decreed that all who desired counsel should be allowed the privilege, those who were poor being furnished at the public expense, and no torture could be inflicted before this was complied with. Easterly winds will remove the loose dry sand towards and fill up the spaces between them. Thus, Lumholtz writes of see below the topic the pantomimic dances of the Australian blacks,[211] and Ling Roth assures us that the Tasmanians have their drolls and mountebanks, who exhibit the peculiarities of individuals with considerable force.[212] Among the Sumatrans, again, are to be found “characters of humour,” who by buffoonery, mimicry, punning, repartee and satire are able to keep the company in laughter at intervals during a night’s entertainment.[213] In some cases jesters are appointed by a chief, just as a fool used to be selected by one of our kings. That wealth and greatness are often regarded with the respect and admiration which are due only to wisdom and virtue; and that the contempt, of which vice and folly are the only proper objects, is often most unjustly bestowed upon poverty and weakness, has been the complaint of moralists in all ages. It is also fatuous to assume that there are ages of criticism and ages of creativeness, as if by plunging ourselves into intellectual darkness we were in better hope of finding spiritual light. In this event it was the duty of the judge to summon the authorities to his aid, and in default of so doing he was liable for all the damages arising from the case. And see below the topic first let us see what it may do to stimulate a general interest in knowledge. This is true, but the difficulty is to see what is before you. Of these A expresses matter, E existence, I force or energy, O existence doubtful, and U existence absent, non-existence, negation or succession. Carelessness and want of oeconomy are universally disapproved of, not, however, as proceeding from a want of benevolence, but from a want of proper attention to the objects of self-interest. There is extant a tract, written not long after this time, containing very minute instructions as to the established mode of dealing with the Waldensian sectaries known as the “Poor Men of Lyons.” It gives directions to break down their strength and overcome their fortitude by solitary confinement, starvation, and terror, but it abstains from recommending the infliction of absolute and direct torture, while its details are so full that the omission is fair negative evidence that such measures were not then customary.[1548] The whole system of the Inquisition, however, see below the topic was such as to render the resort to torture inevitable. To aid see below the topic them in this acquisition the high schools, should have ample collections of books, and these collections of books should become active teaching organisms through the ministrations of competent librarians. He is chiefly distinguished by his unsocial habits, and by the singular practice of always cramming a part of his meat, and sometimes other things, into his ears, shoes, breeches, and different parts of his dress. A sacrifice that does not increase, or tend to increase, the sum total of happiness, it considers as wasted. The education of the savage is directed toward perpetuating this fixity; that of the civilized man should be a force in the opposite direction. In the neighborhood of St. The observations of Miss Shinn, quoted above, on the expansion of the range of vocal sound before the occurrence of the first laugh are most significant here. The oligarchical and aristocratic tendencies, however, which were so strongly developed in the Hellenic commonwealths, imposed upon it a limitation characteristic of the pride and self-respect of the governing order. Their inclinations and talents presented also a striking and astonishing similitude. The gravel also takes a like dip. Not so the latest teachers. Emphasis is laid on work done and the assimilation of ideas gathered from many sources rather than upon memorizing the treatise of one author. Shakespeare illustrates this tendency when he makes Titus Andronicus, whose hand has been cut off, answer the question why he laughed with the exclamation: “Why I have not another tear to shed”.[48] Can we find a common element in these different forms of nervous or apparently unmotived laughter? And shall we bear in mind also that the reading public of a work of French fiction excludes in France the “young person” of whom the American library public is largely made up? To most women, I believe all ugliness is sinful, and all sin is ugly. The rich and the great, the proud and the vain will not admit into their gardens an ornament which the meanest of the people can have as well as they. The Question being thus stated, let us consider the end and purposes, for which Conversation was at first instituted, and is yet desirable; and then we shall see, whether they may not all be found in the Company of Women. Pound, _The Spirit of Romance_, p. It may be, then, that if personal relations between librarian and reader can be set up through the written word, there may be something of this kind even in long-distance, closed-shelf circulation. A native was asked to do the same; and the others, knowing what was to be done, watched him attentively. Laughter is not, however, always of this reflex form. Mr. The opinions of the two last coincide pretty much; the one, with those of Plato; the other, with those of Aristotle; nor do those of the two first seem to have been very different, of whom the one was the author of the doctrine of the Four Elements, the other the inventor of the Categories; who, therefore, may be regarded as the founders, the one, of the ancient Physics; the other, of the ancient Dialectic; and, how closely these were connected will appear hereafter. But when those pretensions are supported by a very high degree of real and solid merit, when they are displayed with all the splendour which ostentation can bestow upon them, when they are supported by high rank and great power, when they have often been successfully exerted, and are, upon that account, attended by the loud acclamations of the multitude; even the man of sober judgment often abandons himself to the general admiration. H.R. This is better to me—those places, those times, those persons, and those feelings that come across me as I retrace the story and devour the page, are to me better far than the wet sheets of the last new novel from the Ballantyne press, to say nothing of the Minerva press in Leadenhall-street. To say that the child recollects the pain of being burnt only in connection with his own idea, and can therefore conceive of it as an evil only with respect to himself, is in effect to deny the existence of any such power as the imagination. In part they are subject to the same sources of error as the popularized works and in addition to the temptation to hasty, scamped or stolen work due to some publisher’s or teacher’s cupidity. The value of comedy as chief ministress to our laughter may be seen by a mere glance at its many resources. The emotion of the person, or the emotion with which our attitude appropriately invests the person, is never lost or diminished, is always preserved entire, but is modified by the position assigned to the person in the eternal scheme, is coloured by the atmosphere of that person’s residence in one of the three worlds. The observation which suggests itself on No. One man may write a book or paint a picture, while another is deliberating about the plan or the title-page. Feeling in itself a continued consciousness of it’s past impressions, it is naturally disposed to transfer the same sort of identity and consciousness to the whole of it’s being, as if whatever is said generally to belong to _itself_ must be inseparable from it’s very existence. Men, though naturally sympathetic, feel so little for another, with whom they have no particular connexion, in comparison of what they feel for themselves; the misery of one, who is merely their fellow-creature, is of so little importance to them in comparison even of a small conveniency of their own; they have it so much in their power to hurt him, and may have so many temptations to do so, that if this principle did not stand up within them in his {80} defence, and overawe them into a respect for his innocence, they would, like wild beasts, be at all times ready to fly upon him; and a man would enter an assembly of men as he enters a den of lions. In 794, a certain Bishop Peter was condemned by the Synod of Frankfort to clear himself, with two or three conjurators, of the suspicion of being involved in a conspiracy against Charlemagne, and, small as was the number, he was unable to procure them.[187] So, in the year 1100, when the canons of Autun, at the Council of Poitiers, accused their bishop, Norgaud, of simony and other irregular practices, and he proposed to absolve himself with the compurgatorial oaths of the Archbishop of Tours and the Bishop of Redon, the canons went privately to those prelates and threatened that in such event they would bring an accusation of perjury and prove it by the ordeal of fire, whereupon the would-be conjurators wisely abandoned their intention, and Norgaud was suspended.[188] I have already referred (p. By-and-by, we may hope, the phonograph will capture its sounds, and enable us to observe them at our leisure. Dr. 1. Those who love books, however, will want to see the distribution of books always at the head of the library’s activities. His whole ambition is to obtain the approbation of his own fellow-citizens; and as they are all animated by the same hostile passions which animate himself, he can never please them so much as by enraging and offending their enemies. The quality of the contact is related to that possible with the open-shelf precisely as mental contact by letter writing is always related to that by conversation. It would appear too, that he had made very considerable progress even in the two first months. Is the {123} charming unsuitability of the “grown-up’s” coat and hat to the childish form viewed by the laughing spectator as a degradation when he “lets himself go”? This new endowment, this last inspiration of the mortal by the god, is what we mean by Humour. But answer me this: was not that valuable publicity for these products? Dr. If they realize by those many delicate indications that we all recognize but cannot formulate, that the library is failing to maintain it, the librarian should hear from them. Henry was condemned by default, and his confiscated possessions were shared between those who had arranged and enacted the comedy.[371] No rank of life in fact procured exemption from the duel between antagonists of equal station. It is true, that their minds may, by the first attack, have undergone some great shock, to derange or paralyse the more perfect performance of its functions; but it is certain, that afterwards, no means were used to resuscitate or feed the powers of the mind into renewed vigour and activity. In Germany, indeed, where the magistrates of the lower tribunals were elective, they were required to be active and vigorous of body.[339] Towards the end of the twelfth century in England we find Glanville acknowledging his uncertainty as to whether or not the court could depute the settlement of such an appeal to a champion, and also as to what, in case of defeat, was the legal position of the court thus convicted of injustice.[340] These doubts would seem to indicate that the custom was still of recent introduction in England, and not as yet practised to an extent sufficient to afford a settled basis of precedents for its details. But it should be remembered, that to make a thing of one kind resemble another thing of a very different kind, is the very circumstance which, in all the Imitative Arts, constitutes the merits of imitation; and that to shape, and as it were to bend, the measure and the melody of Music, so as to imitate the tone and the language of counsel and conversation, the accent and the style of emotion and passion, is to make a thing of one kind resemble another thing of a very different kind. “This,” said the bishop, “we had to do for them.” Therefore they did not have an alphabet in the sense of the word as we use it. A small plump child falls on the floor with sonorous effect: the sudden flopping down is fraught with entertainment for all men. The royal authority was strictly circumscribed, however, and though, in his celebrated Ordonnance of 1260, he formally prohibited the battle trial in the territory subject to his jurisdiction,[726] he was obliged to admit that he had no power to control the courts of his barons beyond the domains of the crown.[727] Even within this comparatively limited sphere, we may fairly assume from some passages in the Etablissements, compiled about the year 1270, that he was unable to do away entirely with the practice. Nothing could exceed the vain and pompous displays of his talents and acquirements; and it is impossible to conceive, from the difficulty he had to support his pretensions, with the defects under which he then laboured, what a very painful and ridiculous exhibition it produced. So far as the Church was concerned its condemnation was irrevocable. Such is the system of Dr. So we do. If he denied the alleged offence, he was tortured at once for a confession, and no settled rules seem to have existed as to the amount of evidence requisite to justify it. My garner is by no means emptied. She is one of those old cases which, in former times in this institution, were kept naked in loose straw and not allowed seats; and hence she now, from this deprivation, sits huddled up, resting on her calves, when worn out by her violence, curled up like an urchin in a corner in a sort of dog sleep, the slightest noise instantly rousing her, when she starts into her strangely agitated state,—shaking her head and gnashing her teeth, and uttering horrible curses with a sort of barking, hoarse, and hideous gutteral sound, apparently against some object present to her imagination; in this violence she formerly continued, sometimes for weeks, latterly only for days, with the most part only for hours, with scarcely any intermission. We can be more indifferent about the applause, and, in some measure, despise the censure of the world; secure that, however misunderstood or misrepresented, we are the natural and proper objects of approbation. Since laughing was one of the things that only man could do, it served as a convenient way of describing him.